Despite children spend more time watching television than any

Despite
the increase of new media and communications forms, traditional television
continues to have a central role Pakistan. Television attracts large market
shares of the youngest media users and audience. Now a day children spend more
time watching television than any other age group.After the liberation of
electronic media in 2002, we have 85 TV channels other than foreign channels
having landing rights in Pakistan. There are five channels specific for children
programs such as Disney, Cartoon Network, Pogo, Baby TV and Nickelodeon, among
them, four channels are broadcasting in Hindi language. Developed countries
like Australia, Canada, and United States have official policies for their kids
to watch television while on the other hand Pakistan does not have such kind of
policy. To determine what sort of policy we need for our kids, we should
critically examine TV content. What kind of programs our kids are watching? Are
they being influenced by foreign cultures? Television has become a dominant
force for social development of children and no one in Pakistan bother to care
about a policy for children. Television provides a platform for kids. It has
already been discussed that multiplicity of new television channels paved the
way for the serious issues as well. The content and the concept of those dramas
is based on Hindi language. The most adverse effect of this content on our
children is that they are now using some particular words and phrases inspired
from Hindi language, in their daily life affairs. This is not only ruining our
own cultural values but also asserting their devastated effects on the character
building of the children.

In
big cities where there is no proper institution to run those television
channels, small cable operators are in charge. A research was conducted by
Canada in Pakistan on the account of children that what kind of cartoons they
use to watch and what do they seek from them? Basically, a survey was conduct
regarding those children who watched cartoons in Hindi language. They were asked
about what they have learned from these cartoons? 60 percent of the kids were
subjected to imitate the behavior of those characters. 40 percent was of the
view that they are inspired by the get up or apparels of those caricatures. 51
percent of those kids were found copying that culture. 56 percent of them
confessed that they use to speak Hindi words in their normal communication. All
of the above mentioned concerns raised the question on the role of our media
and management. What steps are taken by the policy makers for the eradication
of these Hindi dubbed channels? Another important thing which came into my mind
while going through this scenario was role of the parents. Beside media, are
parents also responsible for the activities of their children?To what extent
the parent-craft and pedagogy are essential towards the ethicalization of the children’.This
assignment will surface this social issue and critically analyze a talk show
aired on AAJ News November 12, 2015 as well as the content of children’s
television programs. At the end it will suggest some recommendations to develop
such policy.

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Rationale

With
the advent of new technologies, we can see the advancement in media sphere. But
the importance of legacy television cannot be denied.When media got freedom in
2002, we observed the diversity in television channels. And this multiplicity
of channels also brought in the variation of the content not only for the
adults, but also for children. This study aims to pin point the issues
portrayed through kids programs and which are now considered as crucial for
children’s social and psychological development. Cartoon programs aired on
children television channels are the main source of information for them. They
seek what they watch and also prone to get education from it. Children keenly
observe the phenomena going on screens and pay attention to it. They also learn
different types of behavior through that content. If we particularly talk about
the Hindi dubbed cartoons, we may see that children use such kinds of words as
‘Shakti’, ‘Mukti’, ‘shanti’ or ‘vishal’ etc. in their normal communication at
homes. So this piece of work is also subjected to highlight the problems caused
by these dubbed cartoon programs and also spot the threats to our culture and
language. Learning other cultures through dubbed cartoon programs proclaims not
only social effects but also capture the imaginations and thoughts of the
children. Children are more vulnerable to be enslaved through their mind.
Researcher is directed to identify those false beliefs portrayed through the
cartoons which produce negative stereotypes. The basic reason to the above
mentioned problems is that we don’t have any policy which we can use for the
regulation of electronic media. Developed nations offer special television
policies in order to exercise their control on kid’s content such as movies, cartoons
and games. Unfortunately we do not have such kind of policy in our country. Researcher’s
main concentration is to critically analyze the television talk show aired on
AAJ News November 12, 2015 as well as the content of children’s television
programs. The purpose of this study is to unveil the loopholes of our
television policy w.r.t children’s content, which causes serious threat to the
imagination and learning of the children.

Literature Review

Belton
(2001) became actively involved to analyze a group that was working to
stimulate fresh thinking among children of all ages in their free time
activities and also to measure the effects of these activities on their
cultural, social, spiritual and emotional development. The particular interest
of the study was in determining the effects of television and videos on
children. The study was aimed to measure the effects of television on
children’s imagination. Belton (2001) scrutinized the data consisted on the
stories written by 10-12 years old children at school. These narratives were
most appropriate vehicle in order to find out the effects on imagination. The findings
revealed the various possible meanings of the term “imaginative response” and
also review the limited research efforts made to analyze the influence of
television on children’s story writing and their imagination.In another study
Boden (2006) examined the effects and influence of popular culture on the lives
children. The major focus of this study is on the concept of fashion to the
children and secondly pop music. To identify the serious effects of fashion on
innocent minds, researcher has identified two key concepts of the popular
culture. First is the influence of sport, including the games, brands and logos
associated to the particular game and also the physical appearance and style of
stars? Second one is the pop music, musical videos, celebrities performing in
those videos, their living styles, their apparels, and overall image.
Researcher examined three interlinked issues for the collection of primary
data. Issues discussed in the study were contemporary consumer culture and
obsession with celebrity, children’s wear market and its traditional children’s
clothing to more adult like styling, and the status of the ‘tweenager’ as a
significant social actor and consuming.

Rojek
(2001) claimed that celebrities are cultural productions that symbolize the
society and are perceived as role models. Moreover, these sociocultural
activities are governed by number of intervening factors that functions and
staged the celebrity in front of public. Chung (2003) analyzed the relative
celebrity status of Korean sports and rock stars and concludes that both of
them are essential cultural products of post-industrial capitalist society. For
instance, to Chung (2003) sports prizes the male supremacy, power, wealth,
name, fame and traditional values to those who have proven them as best
athletes in the field and maintained their status off and on. While sports
business and sports media are emerging as a new forms of political economy
around the globe (Cashmore and Parker, 2003). This practice not only increased
the publicity of the super stars through television coverage and
commercialization but also led many individuals raised to iconic status. The
most notable among others is David Beckham, on which number of studies has been
conducted (Burchill, 2002; Cashmore 2002; Cashmore and Parker 2003; Whannel,
2002). He is thought to be as a standard of social change, not only as the
prototypical exempli?er of obvious consumption but also as a ‘fashioned’ icon
for masculine constructions.

Beside
the sport stars, pop stars are equally influential figures in contemporary
culture.For instance, MTV not only promotes the video of the artists but also
raised them to the iconic status. Boden (2006) in this study introduced the
term ‘tweenager’ that is a media-constructed age category that defines an
increasingly growing and influential social group. Quinion (2001) has outlined
the term tweenagers as the children who are of the age from 7 to 11, who are
more sophisticated, trendy and media aware than the other children of their age
group. Broader socio-economic factors have led to the upswing and market
signi?cance of tweenagers. According to Rice (2002) tweenagers are the ones who
lived the era of economic prosperity and become fairly rich than before, they
often belong to small family units with more than one earner and who are
bearing their expenses with large disposable incomes, they are able enough to
set their own way and strategies and are well aware of the labels, media and
technology. Briggs (2009) carried out his research on the governing parents and
the way they regulate their children. His studies contained number of
identities and discourses.

“What
are you on!!? Balamory is very educational, probably the most out of all the
CBeebies list, Pippin coming a close second. Balamory gives children the
continuity that parents and carers at their own nursery are giving. Our
children at this young age will remember and learn far more quickly from one
song than us as a parent will be able to do trying to drum in red is red. My
own children (three and two) LOVE Balamory. I do wonder what your background on
education is, I was a pre-school teacher and curriculum coordinator for five
years. Balamory is superb.” (Victoria, CBeebies message board)

In
the above mentioned quotation, the researcher has highlighted the ways in which
a parents can guide their child. The above cited quote showed that Victoria, at
once, is speaking as a teacher, also a mother who is much concerned of her
children’s activities and joy; she also speaks as an expert having background
of teaching and is anxious of her children’s educational growth. While
communicating these arguments, she is also representing herself as a citizen
who is defending her decision to let her children watching television. By doing
so, she is actually relating her experiences with what she is doing for the
learning and development of her children. This is actually the pedagogy and is
connected with what her children are learning in nursery settings. Educationist
Sue Palmer composed a book on Toxic Childhood in which she identified those
aspects which she believed as a crisis in childhood. Television, computer
games, iPods and internet are the part of popular culture where ”the clash
between our technology-driven culture and our biological heritage is now
damaging children’s ability to think, learn and behave’ (Palmer, 2007: 3). Aric
Sigman, from British Psychological Society, has made a serious claim that young
children shouldn’t exposed to television at all. He highlighted the number of
health risks such as Myopia, diabetes, premature puberty and autism. He
discussed in The Times that ‘we may eventually be accountable for the utmost health
scandal of our time’:

Given
the evidence, it would be prudent to cordon off the early years of child
development as a time when screen media is excluded and then introduced
judiciously as the child matures. To allow children to continue to watch this
much   is an abdication of parental
responsibility. (In Foster, 2007).

The
study was aimed to explore the number of ways in which the challenging
dissertations of education and risk tends to create the identity of the ‘good
parent’. In this regard, different versions of discourse analysis were
employed. According to Briggs (2006) the study signified the ways through which
the process of learning through discourse on CBeebies channels and website
became well known to parents to maintaining the parental identities.Macllend
(2011) in his study of Child abuse material’ legislation and regulation
investigated about the implications of prohibition of child abuse material in
the form of cartoons, animations, drawings and texts. In his work, Macllend
(2011) particularly focused on the Australian fan groups of animation, comics
and gaming and slash fiction. This work raised an argument that the legislative
systems were not working in accordance with the communicative environment,
which brought about the number of images that are producing fans. Large number
of the fans involved the minors and young people. Australia refined its child
pornography legislation which was directed to cease the production,
distribution and processions of the images thought to be harmful for children
in the context of abuse. In 2007, Australian Labor Party stated that if they
would get elected by the public they will introduce such regulations that would
deal with the fair feed of information accessible to children at their homes,
libraries and schools. This strategy was intended to protect the underage
children to come across the inappropriate material prohibited by the Australian
Media and Communication Authority. But after the success in Labor elections
2007 and when Stephen Conroy was appointed Minister for Telecommunications, he
suddenly progressed to launch trials. November 2009 did not report any progress
on the behalf of minister.
THEORETICALFRAMEWORK:
Adaptive Structuration Theory. (AST) is based on Anthony Giddens Structuration
theory which is formulated as “construction and reconstruction of the social system
through the use of resources in form of technology, further DeSanctis and Poole
(1994) worked on it and explained this theory and criticized the use of
technology and emphasized the social aspects. The AST theory elucidate use of
the advent of various innovations such as the printed press, electricity,
telegraph, mass transpirations, radio, telephone, TV, the Internet, etc., and
show how the structures of these innovations penetrated the respective
societies, influencing them, and how the social structures of societies in turn
influenced and modified innovations’ .It is a good model to investigate the
utilization and penetration of media technologies in our society.Since, This
theory talks about use of technologies and how technology construct and reconstruct
the social systems and that technology is shaping minds the topics about the
same things that TV is influencing the minds of kids and kids are inheriting
Indian language and culture because of the technology