Despite knowledge, new knowledge is obtained utilizing the knowers’

Despite the applicability of von Goethe’s ideology to the Arts, it seems rather inapplicable to areas of knowledge that combine reason and sense perception such as the Natural Sciences. In this area of knowledge, new knowledge is obtained utilizing the knowers’ understanding of pre-existing knowledge. Therefore, knowers should become less doubtful as they obtain new knowledge, as this validates the quality of their pre-existing knowledge. An example hereof can be found in the medical sciences, especially with regards to creating new cures for illnesses. In this discipline the “new knowledge” is regarded as the finding of a new cure. When trials with the test-cure obtain positive results, then the quality of their pre-existing knowledge is cemented, as they were able to create something that worked with pre-existing knowledge. This therefore means that as experts become more knowledgeable, they become more certain as well, disproving von Goethe’s statement. Despite this, new, more advanced knowledge generates new unknowns in this particular area of knowledge as well. Over time, the best of theories have been shown to be incomplete. They may have explained many phenomena using basic principles, however future, more precise experiments show a discrepancy between the workings of nature and the predictions of these theories. Previous theories were not accurate, however they were a good approximation of the truth these addressed to understand. For example, in 1801 Thomas Young devised an experiment that forced two beams of light to travel different distances before interfering with each other before they reached the screen. When the two beams of light shone on a screen, Young observed an interesting pattern of light and dark fringes where two beams interfered with each other constructively and destructively. The wavelengths of these two beams were in and out of phase at different points, which is a characteristic that only waves exhibited, due to which scientists believed light travelled in waves. In 1900 however, Albert Einstein proposed that energy transferred by electromagnetic radiation consisted out of a large quantity of individual amounts of energy, light quanta, instead of a continuous wave, and used this theory to prove the photoelectric effect. This newly obtained knowledge completely contradicted pre-existing knowledge and therefore generated new unknowns and uncertainties with regards to the quality of what experts believed previously.