For water management practices, waterborne pathogen remains one of

For removal of drinking water bacterial contaminants
in small cattle breeders’ farm, there is an urgent need to some new methods for
removal of pathogenic bacteria from drinking water sources using an innovative
method to achieve the target of water purification.  Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate
the biocidal activity of calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2, silver
nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its loaded forms against isolated bacteria from
drinking water supplies (tap and hand pumps water). One hundred water samples
were collected from main source and water trough used for cattle drinking.
Collected samples were examined for isolation and identification of pathogenic
bacteria. Fifty strains of isolated bacteria were chosen to evaluate its
sensitivity to each of Ca(OCl)2, AgNPs and AgNPs loaded Ca(OCl)2
using broth macro dilution method. After that, a field trial was applied
through examination of different water samples collected from both water
supplies pre and post-treatment using a generated filter paper impregnated in AgNPs/
Ca(OCl)2 in order to evaluate its biocidal effect on indicator
coliforms bacteria. Results, AgNPs/Ca(OCl)2 nanocomposite at
0.002
mg/l showed the antibacterial effect on  E.
Coli, S. aureus and K. Pneumonae (100% each) after 4hr. of the exposure time compared
to the lowest concentration of nanocomposite. Furthermore, AgNPs/Ca(OCl)2
filter paper exhibited biocidal effect (100%) toward total
viable bacterial count (TVC) CFU/ mL, total coliforms (TCC) and fecal coliforms
bacteria (FCC) CFU/100 mL with reduction values in the effluent water (water
drain) compared to water samples pre-treatment process. Conclusions, using
of conventional Ca(OCl)2 disinfectant leading to existing of
bacterial resistance profile. Therefore, a new trend that towards to
enhancement of the biocidal effect of tested disinfectant using silver nanoparticles
was improved that AgNPs/Ca(OCl)2 nanocomposite had a biocidal effect (100%) against isolated bacteria in addition to
inactivation of coliforms bacteria during
percolation through the bactericidal filter paper.  Despite
advances in the field of water management practices, waterborne pathogen
remains one of the main challenges and threats to both human and animal health
especially in developed countries (CDC, 2013). E. coli is the
main recognized indicator microorganism of fecal contamination in water sources
(Health Canada, 2012; Odonkor and Ampofo, 2013). For instance,
coliforms and E. coli are thermos-tolerant bacterial groups that
indicate the presence of fecal matter (Savichtcheva and Okabe, 2006).  To ensure water safety and protect both the
public and animal health, the disinfection process is considered the main step
whereas many scientists have been exploring various methods to improve the
disinfectants performance through disinfection strategies for water treatment (Xu
Yang, 2016).Therefore,
the different methods of disinfection include chemical, physical and
photochemical methods are essential for the treatment of contaminated water.
Chemical disinfectant such as calcium
hypochlorite is based on the oxidation of the chemical itself and determines
the extent of damage towards the bacterial cell walls (Randtke, 2010). As
chlorine is still popular disinfectant due to its ease of application, the low
cost (Van Haute et al., 2013) and it can react with the cell membrane, cause of cell lysis and
microbial death (Bitton, 2011) 

Using of
Nanosilver as the antimicrobial agent is attractive for many reasons: it hasn’t
unpleasant effects on the odor, taste, and color of drinking water.
Furthermore, it has a broad spectrum of activity against different types of
microorganisms (Kim et al. 2007); the occurrence of bacterial resistance
to silver is dif?cult and almost no adverse impacts on both human beings and
animal health if digested in low amount. There are numerous applications of silver
and silver compounds that using as the antimicrobial agents, portable water
?lters, and medical devices. Sondi and Salopek-Sondi (2004) ?rst studied
nanosilver as the antimicrobial agent against E. coli bacteria. In this
study nanosilver was synthesized through reduction of silver nitrate using
ascorbic acid (Sondi et al., 2003) furthermore, 70% of inactivated E.
coli as Gram-negative bacteria was recorded at a dose of 10 mg/L of nanosilver
meanwhile, hundred percent inactivation occurred at 50 mg/L was dosed. While,
Gong et al., (2007) successfully synthesized magnetic [email protected]
nanoparticles. Such particles size were ranging from 40 – 80 nm and they prove its
ability to inhibit E. coli (gram-negative), S. epidermidis
(gram-positive) growth. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate a
biocidal activity of common disinfectants used for water treatment as calcium
hypochlorite and explore the extent of its efficacy against waterborne
pathogenic bacteria and trying to enhancement its efficacy through making
nanocomposite (AgNPs loaded Ca(OCl)2 disinfectant) then applied a
field trial using generated a biocidal filter paper contains AgNPs loaded Ca(OCl)2
in our lab and evaluate its lethal effect on indicators coliforms
bacteria for water purification.

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