Microcrystalline The term “unctuous” means “smooth and greasy” in

Microcrystalline waxes contain higher proportions of
iso­and cyclo-alkanes (naphthenic) than paraffin waxes.
Micro­rystallline waxes exhibit molecular weights between 500 and 700 with carbon atom
chains ranging typically from C23 to C85 in length. Their Microcrystalline waxes
(microwaxes) exhibit kine­matic viscosities greater than 10 centistokes at
100°C. Because microcrystalline waxes are derived from residual fractions,
they do not have a distinct boiling range. Physical properties of
microcrystalline waxes vary with the type of crude oil and processing
conditions used to produce the wax. Typically, microcrystalline, naphthenic
waxes ex­hibit needle-like microstructures.

Intermediate wax properties are intermediate between those exhibited by paraffin and
microcrystalline waxes. They generally exhibit viscosities between 6 and 10
centistokes at 100°C and a melting point between 68-74°C. Intermediate waxes are
derived from the highest boiling distillate lubricating oil fraction and like
paraffin waxes, they exhibit a distinct boiling point range.

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Petrolatums are soft, unctuous products having a melting point between 38-65°C. The term
“unctuous” means “smooth and greasy” in texture.
Petrolatums are gener­ally produced from the same residual oil fraction as
micro-crystalline waxes and can be prepared by controlled blending of microcrystalline wax with mineral oil. Petrolatums
generally exhibit oil contents greater than
10% and are marketed with colors that
vary from dark brown to white.

Some of the
applications of Microcrystalline  waxes
are:

 

·        
In industries where petrolatum is key
component.

·        
It is used for making candles adhesives.

·        
Corrugated board.

·        
Cosmetics

·        
Castings.

Montan wax is natural wax obtained from
lignites, which contains pure wax (50-80%), resin (20-40%) and bitumen
(10-20%). Montan wax consist of three separated parts: long chain wax alcohols,
long chain wax acids and wax esters formed by them, the carbon number of which
is in the range of C26-C32. Montan wax is commercially obtainable by the
extraction of bituminous’ lignite or bituminous shale, by extracting it with a
suitable solvent or solvent mixture. The latter is of an azeotropic type of
nonpolar and polar solvents. The customary nonpolar solvent is benzene, and the
polar solvent is alcohol. The crude wax so extracted is always blackish in
color, and for most purposes must be deresinified. The four grades of montan
wax in commerce are customarily’
designated as “crude,”
“deresinified.,.” “yellowrefined,” and “white
bleached.” The last named is, however, not a true montana wax. No means
has yet been found of fully bleaching montan wax without considerably altering
its composition.

 

Montan wax and carnauba wax share many
similarities in their properties. However, the former’s color is too dark and
has limited its applications. When color is not strictly required, the montan
wax can serve as a cheap substitute for the carnauba wax. The carnauba wax
contained in the shoe polish, floor wax and car wax can be replaced by montan
wax.

 

The montan wax contains much higher
aliphatic acid, higher aliphatic ester and alcohol etc. which provide excellent
advantages, like oil absorbency and color solubility. When appropriate amount
of montan wax is added into the carbon paper recipe, it can absorb excessive
oil substances, help to dissolve pigment and provide the carbon paper with
smooth, uniform surface and is not sticky. The montan wax is an important raw
material in the carbon paper industry.

 

Since the montan wax is characterized by
low electric conductivity and good insulating property, it can be coated on the
surface of the electric wires and cables. Moreover, it can also be used on the
fixed porcelain insulator and the binding wires as well as the external layer
of the mated compensating wires coatings to improve its electric insulating
property, prevent it from being tacky and extend its service life.

 

The melting point of Monatan wax is  77-86°C, Acid value 22-30 and saponification
number 103.

Uses of Montan:

 

·        
Is used in automobile.

·        
Leather and phonograph records for
polishing.

·        
It is also used as lubricant for
moulding paper and plastics.

The Polyethylene Wax is made either by high pressure
polymerisation, low pressure polymerisation or controlled thermal degradation
of high molecular weight Polyethylene.

Process routes:

1.       Polyethylene
Wax by synthesis Polymerisation

 

CH2
= CH2 ——————————>        
–(-CH2-CH2-)n—

Monomer                                                              
PE Wax

2.     
 Polyethylene Wax by degradation Thermal
cracking

 

–(-CH2
– CH2-)n — —————————–>        –(CH2 – CH2-)n –

Polyethylene                                                            
PE Wax

Low molecular weight polyethylene is known as
polyethylene wax (PE wax). It is a synthetic wax produced during the
polymerization of low molecular weight polyethylene. The ethylene used is
generally obtained by cracking petroleum naptha or from natural gas.

Polyethylene wax has good dispersion and
fluidity, good electrical and remoulding properties, good light resistant and
chemical-resistant properties. It is well known for increasing abrasion
resistance and providing excellent barrier protection. It also improves surface
appearance by providing a non-sticky wax surface. It is soluble in various
polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl acetate, ethylene propylene
rubber, butyl rubber, and various aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also used for
temperature and viscosity modification of other polymers. Polyethylene wax is
non-toxic in nature and is available in the market in various forms and grades
differing in viscosity, softening point, hardness, density and molecular
weight.

 

The melting point of the polyethylene
waxes ranges from 97 to 115°C depending on the reaction conditions taking place
in the reactor in their making. The acid value of Polyethylene wax is 0,
saponification number 6-7, and iodine number 0.35.

Some of the Uses of Polyethylene waxes:

 

Ø  Polyethylene
wax /Polypropylene wax act as activator and dispersing material for
Polyethylene, Polypropylene, ABS resins.

Ø  The
addition of Polyethylene wax to hydrocarbon waxes increases the melting points
of such waxes to a marked degree.

Ø  PE
wax as homo polymer is used in elastomers, hot melt adhesives, inks,
lubricants, coatings, plastics, solvent polishes, personal care products and
wax blends.

Ø  Copolymers
provide greater compatibility and solubility than comparable homopolymers.
Major use of copolymers includes adhesives, polishes, textiles, candles, paper
coatings and color concentrates.