Research [4]; [5]. In other words: Innovation = invention

Research
Methodology – MSc first semester – SPU TCI

Hawar
Hussein Yaba

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2018
January

 

1.1  Introduction:

    Information technology (IT) nowadays plays
a very important role in the success of a business, private and public sectors in
different organizations; it is and should be considered as a strategic element
and should be an integral part of corporate governance 1. This is the
responsibility not only of IT managers, but also of the board of directors,
executive management and senior executives 7.

There
have been many attempts at improving IT governance over the years in order to
promote satisfactory project completion. Companies have invested a lot of money
to solve this problem, but have failed because they have focused on IT supply
without taking into account business requirements.

 

The
performance of a business process is interrelated with the adequacy of software
systems. Software aims to provide services at all levels of a business
organization to effectively achieve their goals and objectives.

 

 

With
this study we can conclude that ITIL is useful for increasing the overall
quality of IT services, reduced costs, improved customer satisfaction, improved
productivity and delivery

 

Managers’
personal values importantly influence their innovative behavior. In the global
competitive environment, enterprises can survive in the long run by permanently
innovating their working and behavior, especially with innovation of their
management (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4). In literature innovation is defined as
every novelty found beneficial in the experience of its users 1; 4; 5. In
other words: Innovation = invention + commercialization.

 

The
importance of creativity has been altered recently especially in IT industry.
Thus, managers in charge of IT departments in organizations must have high
innovative capacity that rests on different pillars of innovative behavior. In
that framework, a crucial issue is innovativeness and what drives
innovativeness. Among all factors, which influence innovativeness the less
investigated ones are the internal factors, which define relations between
managers’ behavior and their innovativeness.

 

 

Today,
quality is no longer the first priority for consumers. The global market has
enabled the selection of the optimal supplier or supply partner. Being
extremely efficient technique of the conventional quality control produces a
risk of falling into over-quality. Society’s as a whole consumption and the
relation of production change a lot in the computerized society.

 

 

 

“It
was pointed out the competitive advantage of the Japanese assembly type of
manufactures, which are strengths in technology that are close to the
production site. Historical changes of the industry of Japan’s Manufacturing
are deployed SQC (Statistical Quality Control) in 1920 era, then it was
completely introduced into Japan in 1950 era.1 Since 1950, it was based on the
domestic market first then export was started to the European and American
advanced nation markets. In that time, many Japanese companies faced problems
in that the quality was only able to compete in the market in Europe/United
States but only in the lower value market segment. Then Japanese companies
strove to improve the quality without increasing the cost, The product was
gradually shifted into higher value markets in the Europe and America, and
establish their competitive advantage in the markets. Competitive advantage of
the Japanese manufacturing industry has attributed to change the paradigm of
manufacturing, to minimize cost increases, while carrying out execution of a
process of moving into the high-end market segment.2 However, by rapid progress
of overseas production and development of an information technology in recent
years, the competitive advantage of “being budget prices at high
quality” or “conformance quality” of Japanese products is being lost.
Additionally, it was felt that excessive quality by “KAIZEN” as an improvement
of continuous innovation, profitability has gone up in the in the European and
American market. This paper is to clarify the impact on an enterprise
organization and inter-company relationship to arise in the course of the
spread of IT technology since 1990, to identify a conformance quality based on
today’s market, and to propose what are the competitive advantages for Japan’s
manufacturing industry.”

 

For
above citation references:

–       The impact of IT technology on the quality management organization
in Japan by Yoshiyuki NAKURAa*, Masakazu OHASHI b

–       KAIZEN, How Japanese involve the world, Hizoka Hiroshy, 2011

 

 

 

     ITIL formerly known as the Information
Technology Infrastructure Library and it consists of a set of practices for IT
service management also known as ITSM. ITIL focuses on aligning the IT services
in a company to best fit with the necessities of the business.

     It was observed that without any standard
practices, the private sector together with the government agencies, were
starting to create their individual IT management practices. And yet, it is a
reality: when critical IT services are not available, the business (Banking,
healthcare, accounting and finance, public utilities, shipping and
transportations, airline industry) suffers.

     The definition of ITI encompasses a
variety of components. Based on previous studies, Duncan 1995 stated that ITI
includes a group of shared, tangible IT resources that provide a foundation to
enable present and future business applications Broadbent & Weill, 1997;
Davenport & Linder, 1994; Earl, 1989; Keen, 1991; McKay & Brockway,
1989; Niederman, Brancheau, & Wetherbe, 1991; Weill, 1993.

     Byrd and Turner 2000, p. 172 provided a
thorough definition of ITI as: “the shared IT resources consisting of a
technical physical base of hardware, software, communications technologies,
data, and core applications and a human component of skills, expertise,
competencies, commitments, values, norms, and knowledge that combine to create
IT services that are typically unique to an organization. These IT services
provide a foundation for communications interchange across the entire
organization and for the development and implementation of present and future
business applications.”

 

2.1  Old routine government systems
convert to the new one

 

2.2  Background

     Markellou et al. 5 proposes that for the
implementation and successful operation of e-government, the proper design,
which will be the basis in order to receive a series of strategic,
administrative and operational benefits, is necessary.

 

2.3
Existing Legacy and E-Services Platforms

     In order to effectively support both
systems (e.g. the portal and the legacy system), the following decisions were
reached:

– Replace
distributed databases of residential offices with a central one hosted in the
Data Center.

– Support server-based
computing.

– Rewrite most
applications of the legacy information system to facilitate a web interface. 1

 

The Gap indication:

     There is the same database that they work
on it the old one, they recently updated and replaced the hardware of it, and they
must design a new database or web interface, a centralized database.

 

3.1 Improving
with Six Sigma

     There are two approaches that can be used
to improve information technology service management (ITSM), the “ITIL” and
“Six Sigma”. ITIL defines the “what” of service management and Six Sigma
defines the “how” of quality improvement. The ITIL provides the foundation for
quality ITSM. Six Sigma ensures the service improvement program is focused on
critical business areas (called critical to quality), Together, they make a
great combination for improving the quality of IT service delivery and support 2.

     Motorola was facing the same problems as
the industry at this time, but found that they were losing a large portion of
their business and productivity through the cost of none quality, “Six Sigma”
is a federally registered trademark of Motorola. To illustrate why 99 per cent
quality level is not acceptable, consider the following facts at major
airports, 99 per cent quality means two unsafe plane landings per day, in mail
processing 16,000 pieces of lost mail every hour, in power generation 7 hours
of no electricity each month, and in medical surgery 500 incorrect surgical
operations per week.2

 

The
Gap research is not including a flowchart of the applied new system. And where
the system design is for example is it web based or is it computer application
system.

 

4.1 Information Technology for healthcare Education service

     This explores the
information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure for education at
the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) and the
University of Ghana (UG) and its implications for health education at the two
universities. ICT Literacy is valued in many academic and professional sectors,
from primary school to continuing education. (Compton and Harwood, 2003)

 

4.2 Challenges:

4.2.1
Awareness of existing ICT services

     A couple instructors at KNUST commented
that they were under the impression that Moodle was a service available only to
the School of Medical Sciences.

4.2.2
Coordination across campuses and departments

     Each website was designed by different
developers and has different designs and does not cross-reference the others
inside university.

4.2.3
Instructor incentives to integrate technology with teaching and research

     There is also little incentive for
teaching staff from chalkboard or PowerPoint handouts to online learning
systems.

4.2.4
Frequent power outages and fluctuations

     The power is the potential impact of the
network improvement projects at both universities. Staff and students about
personal or work computers that were damaged due to power surges. 3

 

5.1
Information technology for International business services

     Using data from 200 U.S. and Canadian
companies, this study examines the impact of the four components of ITI
flexibility (compatibility, connectivity, modularity, and IT personnel) on
strategic IT-business.

The
findings from analysis provide evidence that the four components make
significant, positive impacts on strategic business implementation.

 

5.2 The
Clear Experiment on ITI:

     In the early 1990s, Johnson & Johnson
faced new business pressures when large customers, such as Wal-Mart and K-mart,
made new demands on the company, such as cost savings and just-in-time stock
replenishment. Johnson & Johnson’s business and IT managers acted in
partnership to develop a new set of ITI capabilities which enabled the company
to provide the necessary services for its large customers while, at the same
time, reducing costs for the firm Weill & Broadbent, 1998.

     At the same time during late 1990s,
Charles Schwab focused on delivering timely, customized information to its
investors. Using the company’s ITI and applications aligned with its business
focus, Schwab became a full service brokerage firm. The firm was able to
provide information and process transactions in meeting its business
objectives. Customers could retrieve stock quotes and place orders via Schwab’s
Web site. As a result, the corporation continues to be an industry leader.
Kettinger, Grover, Subanish, & Segars, 1994.

     Duncan 1995 also stated that ITI
includes the alignment of IT plans to business objectives, the IT architecture,
and the skills of IT personnel.

     Broadbent and Weill 1997 noted that ITI
capabilities enable the various types of IT applications required to support
current and future business objectives, and enable the competitive positioning
of business initiatives.

McKay
and Brockway 1989 described ITI as the enabling foundation of shared IT
capabilities upon which the entire business depends. This foundation is
standardized and shared by business functions within the organization, and
typically used by different organizational applications.

 

5.3 Information
Technology Infrastructure flexibility

     Weill 1993 asserted that an ITI should
be flexible to be able to handle increased customer demands without increased
costs.

     Davenport and Linder 1994 stated that
ITI flexibility should be viewed as a core competency of the organization and
suggested that an effective ITI is flexible and robust.

 

IT
project development

IT
project development is a crucial point for the success of any IT organization,
IT (Information Technology) project management and the delivery processes are
the vital points to complete a project within agreed time, budget and quality. They
also mention five reasons for why projects failed which are related to poor
requirements, managing resources, impractical schedules, weak planning and
unrevealed risks. To become successful in IT project development, it’s
important to have a clear idea on these five failure issues and to take
necessary steps to overcome it. In today’s business world it

is
important for every organization to have a well-defined project management
process and to follow that process strictly to achieve the best result. Moreover,
a well-organized IT project development framework helps a company to improve
its productivity as well as the business competitiveness and provide better
services for their customers. But it is impossible to have one process for all
type of IT projects like ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), sourcing, HR
(Human Resources) and so on. Depending on project size and others criteria,
organizations choose agile, waterfall or other models to complete their
projects. On the other hand when project scope is not fixed and the feedback
requires from the client to proceed on, the next steps are the selection of an
agile model that can provide the best results. Therefore the project manager
needs to have a clear idea about the differences between project lifecycle and
system development lifecycle. Project models are important for system
development whereas time, cost and quality issues are mainly related with
project lifecycles. Often requirements are not possible to be defined at the
beginning of the project, which makes the project development more complicated.
Nowadays, many companies have decided to follow an outsourcing strategy for
their IT projects. Depending on different situations, project managers faced
different complexities that require vast knowledge and experience to overcome
that situation. That’s why an IT project framework is so important to run
projects successfully within a defined time, cost and quality.

 

Project
Framework

A
project framework is an organized approach to present clarity the project’s
objectives with a sequence of check points at which advancement and consequence
is possible to review and check. Moreover it provides a set of procedures for
daily management of project group including roles and responsibilities of key
project members.

 

Main
project delivery task includes reporting, time recording, documentation,
configuration management, monitoring and control, stakeholder management,
change control, procurement, training and so on based on specific project type.
Moreover, reviews of the project and benefits realization are also important
activities after project completion.

 

According
to Cadle and Yeates 9, before start a project, a detailed business case is
important to be prepared which can provide a clear picture of projects’ scopes
and values.

There
are many types of IT projects like development, implementation, and
infrastructure etc. but the general principles of managing any IT project are
basically almost the same.

Project
development process includes a set of structured procedure to accomplish the
exact and unique result within a predefined and limited amount of time period.
The project manager always needs to remember that there are some distinctions
in structure of each type of IT project work. Meredith and Mantel 18
mentioned that, for a successful IT project, it is important to have a clear
understanding about project organization and about the role of each participant
including customer, major decision maker, steering group and so on.

 

 

 

 

Methodology:

Most
companies encounter problems to complete IT projects according to agreement,
which is a crucial point to become successful.

According
to Peffers et al. 33, design science research methodology for IS research
consists of six activities. These activities are in number of six and are the
followings: problem identification and motivation; define the objectives for a
solution; design and development; demonstration; evaluation; and communication.

 

In
this research we have as case study Company A to address the particular problem
for answering the research question. Every projects and project areas have its
own characteristics that could be considered as a single case. In order to
collect the data from Company A, observations, document studies, a survey and
interviews have been performed in this research. Both qualitative and
quantitative techniques have been used to maximize the benefits and to provide the
complete understanding for the analysis purpose 34. As this research is based
on improvement of IT project development, the qualitative data are mainly
gathered from the analyzed projects reports and from observation processes in
Company A. The discussions we had with the project related personnel like
project managers and project area managers, has helped us to gather additional
valuable information. Finally, to understand the priority of each KPA and to
collect data about this issue a survey has been done in Company A among the
project managers, as a quantitative technique.

 

 

We
used the case study method to conduct exploratory research in order to
determine the current status of strategic IT demand management in
organizations, because strategic IT demand management is considered as a new
topic in the area of research 3. This case study is considered as exploratory
21, 22 because we failed to locate many sources of information during the
literature review of this topic. On this ground, we decided to learn directly
from the experience of board members, senior executives, IT professionals and
business owners about how they manage strategic IT demand in their
organizations. The research was carried out taking into account the case study
protocol 16. We used a combination of different data collection methods and
techniques, primarily surveying, supported by other media, such as telephone
interviews, email, social networks and the web. The survey included a series of
questions exploring the reality of strategic IT demand management. In some
cases, participants were contacted by telephone at their companies to find out
whether they were available to participate voluntarily, and, if they were, they
were then given the web link to complete the survey. In other cases,
respondents were contacted via email indicating the web link for them to access
and participate in the survey.

 

 

Research
design

The
impact of personal values on managers’ attitudes toward typical innovative
behavior is tested in three steps. First, the impact of four individual level
higher-order dimensions of personal values on typical innovative behavior is
tested. Second, the impact of ten individual-level sub-dimensions of personal
values on typical innovative behavior is tested. Third, the impact of single
values on typical innovative behavior is examined, including all 56 personal
values. We used hierarchical regression analysis. Model 1 represents entry of
demographic variables. Model 2 presents entry of personal values, considered either
as four individual level higher-order dimensions, or ten individual-level
sub-dimensions of personal values, or 56 single values according to universal
structure of personal values, proposed by Schwartz (e.g. 43, 39, 32). Research
model is depicted in Figure 1.

 

 

Design
of the framework for IT projects development in Company A

4.1.
Problem Identification and Motivation

4.2.
Objective for a Solution

4.3.
Design & Development of Proposed Framework for IT Projects Development

4.4.
Demonstration of the Framework

4.5.
Evaluation of the Framework

4.6.
Communication of the Framework

 

How
the technology impact Kurdistan:

Using
mobile telephone, fiber cables, using social medias, using online shopping, how
they using the online systems of companies and governments.

 

Answered
side:

Kurdistan
regional government, Department of information technology, directorate of
follow-up, Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research, ministry of
municipality, Ministry of Anfal and Martyrs, Ministry of Economic, Ministry of
Healthcare, Ministry of Education, Ministry of planning, Ministry of
Agriculture and water resources, Ministry of work and Social care,

 

Not
answered side:

Ministry
of Financial, Ministry of Natural resources, Ministry of Electricity,

 

 

References:

1-     
Research
and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information System, University
of Athens, 2006

2-     
Improving the
Information Technology Service Management with Six
Sigm, 2010

3-     
Information
and Communication Technology Infrastructure Analysis of Kwame
Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and University of Ghana, 2011

4-     
Information
technology for International business services Chung,
Sock H.; Rainer, R. K. Jr.; and Lewis, Bruce R. (2003)

5-     
Knowledge Management
for Interstate E-Government, Proceedings of the Workshop on Knowledge
Management in Electronic Government Riedl, 2001.

6-     
Infrastructure
and Technologies for Education and Training, Electronic Government Bose, 2004.

7-     
Integration
Strategies and Tactics for Information Technology Governance Peterson,
2003.

8-     
An Exploratory
Analysis of the Value of the Skills of IT Personnel: Their Relationship to IS
Infrastructure and Competitive Advantage. T.A. and
Turner, E.D., 2001.

9-     
A Framework for
IT Project Development in a Large Company, Mousumi Kabira,
Lazar Rusub*, 2013.

10-  Case Study of Strategic IT Demand Management in Organizations –
Exploratory Results, Igor Aguilar Alonso *, José Carrillo Verdún, Edmundo Tovar Caro,
2013.

11-  Goal-Driven Approach For Business/IT Alignment Evaluation, Lerina
Aversano*, Carmine Grasso, Maria Tortorella, 2013.

12-  Implementation of an Information Technology Infrastructure Library
Process – The Resistance to Change, Rui Estevesa,*,
Paulo Alvesb, 2013.

13-  Innovativeness of IT Managers – Exploring Influences of Personal
Values on IT Managers’ Innovativeness, Vojko Potocana,*,
Zlatko Nedelkoa, 2013.

14-  The impact of IT technology on the quality management organization in Japan, Yoshiyuki
NAKURAa*, Masakazu OHASHI b, 2013.

15-  KAIZEN, How Japanese involve the world,
Hizoka Hiroshy, 2011.