Why fear of the unknown and anxiety [Baron 1990;

Why it is important to involve
everyone in an organization for the change program:

Organizations
rely on their employees to adapt to changes, however the adaptation is usually
slow, often difficult and sometimes even unsuccessful. This mostly occurs in
the case of socially detrimental changes, for instance those in the aftermath
of the recent global economic crisis which include: closures of factories and
redundancies for cost reasons, organizational changes in management strategy,
price restructuring (cost cutting) accompanied by lay-offs, internal
restructuring involving, for example, a merger of two work units, and a
decrease in company value (reputation, goodwill). Therefore, change remains and
will remain a dilemma in how to cope with challenges that are often mutually
exclusive: a challenge to assure high organizational change performance and a
challenge to sustain organizational social integrity

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Organizational
members’ reactions to change vary depending on the character of transformation
and the value that people place on satisfying different individual needs
Carnall 1990. Individuals or groups can react very differently to change:
from passively resisting it, silencing its advocates, refusing to engage in
joint problem-solving, refusing to seek common ground, sabotaging, and
aggressively trying to undermine it, to sincerely embracing it.

Resistance
to change is customary mentioned in management literature as an inevitable
consequence of organizational change initiatives and listed among the most
crucial inertial forces against any transformation Carnall 1990; Burnes 1992;
Coulson-Thomas 1992; Kotter 1996. Because the future is often uncertain in
terms of change, people in general are not motivated to change unless there are
compelling reasons to do so Bouckenooghe, Devos, van den Broeck 2009, p. 559,
p. 41 and the destination state to which the organization moves is indeed
beneficial to individuals and the whole organization. Therefore, any change
attempts encounter resistance. Peter Senge 2006 states that “People don’t
resist change. They resist being changed”. Employees’ resistance to change is
attributed to various causes including habit and inertia Agocs 1997, p. 45.
It stems also from change as such (e.g. impediments related to undertaking the
transformation); from fear of the unknown and anxiety Baron 1990; Czerska
1996; Griffin 1996 resulting from individual perception of consequences of the
change process, such as absence of the skills they will need after the change,
and losing power or position.

Although
inertial forces constantly occur during the change process, adaptation will be
successful when they are overcome. Because resistance is claimed to be a natural
human response to “uncertainty, anxiety and ambiguity” inherent for a situation
of change Griffin 1996, attaining the organizational balance by “ensuring a tolerable
level of environmental uncertainty, anxiety and ambiguity” for organizational
members seems to be a vital determinant of successful change management.